Московская область, г. Сергиев Посад, Лавра, Академия

Легитимация храмовых служителей и богослужебных традиций периода Второго Храма в Истории Летописца на примере 1 Пар. 23–25

Священник Андрей Выдрин
кандидат богословия, доцент кафедры библеистики Московской духовной академии, 141300, Сергиев Посад, Троице-Сергиева Лавра, Академия. vydan83@gmail.com

Богословский вестник. 2019. Т. 32. №1. С. 17-38.
doi: 10.31802/2500-1450-2019-32-17-38

Аннотация
В данной статье исследуется повествование книг Паралипоменон об учреждении царем Давидом порядка храмового ритуала (1 Пар. 23–25). Автор показывает, что, согласно мировоззрению Летописца, Иерусалимский Храм и его богослужение занимали важнейшее место в жизни древнего Израиля. Однако в послепленную эпоху в результате развития социальных и религиозных учреждений появились различные обычаи, относящиеся к служению священников и левитов, которые не соответствовали законам Пятикнижия, поэтому сознавалась острая необходимость установления преемственной связи с эпохой дарования Закона. Таким образом, Летописец легитимирует двадцать четыре священнические группы, а также гильдии храмовых певцов-музыкантов, существовавших в его время. Кроме того, писатель изменяет возраст вступления левитов на их служение при Храме. Для этой цели он по-своему интерпретирует отдельные предписания Пятикнижия, в частности сочетая ссылки на традицию (משְׁפָּט [mišpāt] и на закон в лице Аарона, а также отождествляя пророческую заповедь (מצְוָה [miṣwāh]) Давида с законами Моисея.

Ключевые слова: книги Паралипоменон, История Летописца, Хроники, Иерусалимский Храм, священники, левиты, персидский (ахеменидский) период, экзегетика, интерпретация Библии, храмовые музыканты и певцы.

Библиография
Источники
Библия: Книги Священного Писания Ветхого и Нового Завета. Брюссель: Жизнь с Богом, 1989.
Глаголев А., свящ.КомментарийнаПервуюкнигу Паралипоменон // Толковая Библия, или Комментарий на все книги Священного Писания Ветхого и Нового Завета в 12 т. СПб.: Синодальная типография, 1906. Т. 3. С. 8–88.
Флавий Иосиф. Иудейские древности. Минск: «Беларусь», 1994.
Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia / ed. K. Elliger; W. Rudolph; vorw. v. A. Schenker. Stuttgart: Deutsch Bibelgesellschaft, 1997.

Литература
Велльгаузен Ю. Введение в историю Израиля / пер. с нем. Н. М. Никольского. СПб.: Тип. Ю. Н. Эрлих, 1909.Allen L. C. The First and Second Books of Chronicles // New Interpreters Bible. Vol. 3. Nashville: Abingdon, 1999. P. 299–301.
Braun R. L. 1 Chronicles. Waco, Texas: Word Books, 1986.
Cross F. M. A Reconstruction of the Judean Restoration // JBL. Vol. 94. 1975. Р. 4–18.
Curtis E. L., Madsen А. А. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Books of Chronicles. Edinburg: T. and T. Clark, 1910.
Dillard R. B. 2 Chronicles. Waco, Texas: Word Books, 1987.
Duke R. K. Chronicles, Books of // Dictionary of the Old Testament, Historical Books / ed. Bill T. Arnold and H. G. M. Williamson. Downers Grove (Illinois): Inter Varsity, 2005. P. 167.
Eissfeldt O. The Old Testament, аn Introduction. New York: Harper & Row, 1965.
Fishbane M. Biblical Interpretation in Ancient Israel. Oxford: Clarendon, 1985.
Freedman D. N. The Chronicler’s Purpose // Catholic Biblical Quarterly. 1961. Vol. 23. P. 436–442.
Hicks J. M. 1 and 2 Chronicles. Joplin, Missouri: College Press Publishing Company, 2001.
Hooker P. K. First and Second Chronicles. Louisville; L.; Leiden: Westminster / John Knox Press, 2001.
Japhet S. The Supposed Common Authorship of Chronicles and Ezra–Neemiah Investigated Anew // Vetus Testamentum. 1968. Vol. 18. Р. 330–371.
Japhet S. 1 and 2 Chronicles. L.: SCM Press, 1993.
Johnstone W. 1 and 2 Chronicles. Vol. 1. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1997.
Kleinig J. W. The Divine Institution of the Lord’s Song in Chronicles // JSOT. 1992. Vol. 55. P. 75‒83.
Knoppers G. N. Hierodules, Priests, or Janitors? The Levites in Chronicles and the History of the Israelite Priesthood // JBL. 1999. Vol. 118. №. 1. Р. 49‒72.
Knoppers G. 1 Chronicles 1–9, А New Translation with Introduction and Commentary. New York: Doubleday, 2003.
Myers J. M. 1 Chronicles. Garden City (New York): Doubleday, 1965.
Noth М. The Chronicler’s History /trans. Williamson H. G. M. Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1987.
Rad G., von. Geschichtsbild des chronistischen Werkes. Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer, 1930.
Rudolph W. Chronikbücher. Tübingen: J. C. B. Mohr, 1955.
Schniedewind W. M. The Word of God in Transition, From Prophet to Exegete in the Second Temple Period. Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1995.
Schniedewind W. М. The Chronicler as an Interpreter of Scripture // The Chronicler as Autor/ ed. by M. P. Graham and S. L. Mckinzie.Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1999. Р. 158‒180.
Street J. M. The Significance of the Ark Narrative, Literary Formation and Artistry in the Book of Chronicles. New York: Peter Lang Publishing, 2009.
Throntveit M. When Kings Speak, Royal Speech and Royal Prayer in Chronicles. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1987.
Vaughn A. G. Theology, History, and Archaeology in the Chronicler’s account of Hezekiah. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1999.
Welch A. The Work of the Chronicler, Its Purpose and Date. L.: Oxford University Press, 1939.
Wette W. M. L., de. Beiträge zur Einleitung in das Alten Testament. Halle: Schimmelpfennig, 1806. Bd. 1.
Wilcock M. 1 and 2 Chronicles // New Bible commentary, 21st century edition / ed. by G. J. Wenham, J. A. Motyer, D. A. Carson and R. T. France. Downers Grove (Illinois): InterVarsity Press, 1994.
Willi T. Die Chronik als Auslegung. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, 1972.
Williamson H. G. M. Israel in the Books of Chronicles. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977.
Williamson H. G. M. 1 and 2 Chronicles. L.; Marshall: Morgan and Scott, 1982.
Wright J. W. The Legacy of David in Chronicles, The Narrative Function of 1 Chronicles 23‒27 // JBL. 1991. Vol. 110. Р. 229‒242.

Andreĭ A. Vydrin, priest. PhD in Theology, Associate Professor of Department оf biblical studies of Мoscow Theological Аcademy (MthA), The Trinity Lavra of St. Sergios, Sergiev Posad 141300, Russia. vydan83@gmail.com

“The Legitimization of Temple Attendants and the Liturgical Traditions of the Second Temple Period in the History of the Chronicler on the Example of 1 Par. 23–25ˮ.

Theological Herald
, vol. 32, no. 1, 2019, pp. 17-38. (In Russian)
doi: 10.31802/2500-1450-2019-32-17-38

Abstract
This article explores the information given in the books of Chronicles concerning the establishment of the order of temple worship by King David (1 Chron. 23-25). The A. shows that, according to the Chronicler’s worldview, the Jerusalem Temple and its divine service occupied an important place in the life of ancient Israel. However, in the aftermath of the epoch, as a result of the development of social and religious institutions, there appeared various customs related to the ministry of priests and Levites, which did not comply with the laws of the Pentateuch, therefore, there was an urgent need to establish a continuity with the era of the Law. Thus, the Chronicler legitimizes the twenty-four priestly groups, as well as the guilds of temple singers and musicians that existed in his time. In addition, the writer changes the age of entry of the Levites to their ministry at the Temple. For this purpose, he interprets in his own way the separate prescriptions of the Pentateuch combining references to tradition (משְׁפָּט [mišpāt]) and the law in the person of Aaron, as well as identifying the prophetic commandments (מצְוָה [miṣwāh]) of David with the laws of Moses.

Keywords: Paralipomenon, History of the Chronicler, Chronicles, Temple of Jerusalem, priests, Levites, Persian (Achaemenid) period, exegesis, Bible interpretation, temple musicians and singers.

References
Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia[Hebrew Bible Stuttgartensia]. Edited by K. Elliger, W. Rudolph, Deutsch Bibelgesellschaft, 1997.
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Allen, L. C. “The First and Second Books of Chronicles”. New Interpreters Bible, vol. 3, 1999, pp. 299–301.
Braun, R. L. 1 Chronicles. Word Books, 1986.
Cross, F. M. “A Reconstruction of the Judean Restoration”. Journal of Biblical Literature, vol. 94, 1975, pp. 4–18.
Curtis, E. L., Madsen, А. А. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Books of Chronicles. Edinburg: T. and T. Clark, 1910.
Dillard, R. B. 2 Chronicles. Word Books, 1987.
Duke, R. K. “Chronicles, Books of”. Dictionary of the Old Testament, Historical Books, Inter Varsity, 2005, p. 167.
Eissfeldt, O. The Old Testament, аn Introduction. Harper & Row, 1965.
Fishbane, M. Biblical Interpretation in Ancient Israel. Clarendon, 1985.
Flavij, Iosif. Iudeĭskie drevnosti [Jewish Antiquities]. Belarus, 1994. (in Russ.)
Freedman, D. N. “The Chronicler’s Purpose”. Catholic Biblical Quarterly, vol. 23, 1961, pp. 436–442.
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Hooker, P. K. First and Second Chronicles. Westminster, John Knox Press, 2001.
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1 and 2 Chronicles. SCM Press, 1993.
Johnstone, W. 1 and 2 Chronicles. Vol. 1, Sheffield Academic Press, 1997.
Kleinig, J. W. “The Divine Institution of the Lord’s Song in Chronicles”. JSOT, vol. 55, 1992, pp. 75‒83.
Knoppers, G. N. “Hierodules, Priests, or Janitors? The Levites in Chronicles and the History of the Israelite Priesthood”. Journal of Biblical Literature, vol. 118, №. 1, 1999, pp. 49‒72.
1 Chronicles 1–9, А New Translation with Introduction and Commentary. Doubleday, 2003.
Myers, J.M. 1 Chronicles. Doubleday, 1965.
Noth, М. The Chronicler’s History. JSOT Press, 1987.
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Rudolph, W. Chronikbücher[Chronicle Books]. J. C. B. Mohr, 1955.
Schniedewind, W. M. The Word of God in Transition, From Prophet to Exegete in the Second Temple Period. JSOT Press, 1995.
— “The Chronicler as an Interpreter of Scripture.” The Chronicler as Autor, edited by M. P. Graham and S. L. Mckinzie, JSOT Press, 1999, pp. 158‒180.
Street, J. M. The Significance of the Ark Narrative, Literary Formation and Artistry in the Book of Chronicles. Peter Lang Publishing, 2009.
Throntveit, M. When Kings Speak, Royal Speech and Royal Prayer in Chronicles. Scholars Press, 1987.
Vaughn, A. G. Theology, History, and Archaeology in the Chronicler’s account of Hezekiah. Scholars Press, 1999.
Vell’gauzen, Yu. Vvedenie v Istoriiu Izrailia [Introduction to the History of Israel]. Translated from German by N. M. Nikolsky, Tipografiya Yu. N. Ehrlih, 1909. (in Russ)
Welch, A. The Work of the Chronicler, Its Purpose and Date. Oxford University Press, 1939.
Wette, W. M. L., de. Beiträge zur Einleitung in das Alten Testament[Contributions to the Introduction to the Old Testament]. Bd. 1, Schimmelpfennig, 1806.
Wilcock, M. “1 and 2 Chronicles”. New Bible Commentary, 21st century edition, Inter Varsity Press, 1994.
Willi, T. Die Chronik Als Auslegung [The Chronicle as an Interpretation]. Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, 1972.
Williamson, H. Israel in the Books of Chronicles. Cambridge University Press, 1977.
1 and 2 Chronicles. Morgan and Scott, 1982.
Wright, J. “The Legacy of David in Chronicles, The Narrative Function of 1 Chronicles 23‒27”. Journal of Biblical Literature, vol. 110, 1991, pp. 229‒242.